Leukemia

Acute Leukemia-ALLLeukemia (Blood Cancer) is a malignant disease of blood cells derived from bone marrow. Usually characterized by a proliferation of white blood cells by the manifestation of the abnormal cells in the peripheral blood (blast cells) and cause pressed the normal blood cells resulting in impaired function.

Leukemia is divided into 2 types:

  • Acute Leukemia: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), Acute Non Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ANLL) or Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
  • Chronic Leukemia: Chronic Lymphoblastic Leukemia (CLL), Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML).

Symptoms / Signs

  • Pale, weak, cranky children, decreased appetite,
  • Fever for no apparent reason,
  • Enlargement of the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes,
  • Seizures to loss of consciousness,
  • Skin bleeding (petechiae, hematoma), and spontaneous bleeding (epistaxis, bleeding gums),
  • Bone pain in children. Often marked in children already be up and running suddenly did not want to do it again, children are more convenient to be carried.
  • Enlargement of testes with a hard consistency.

Diagnosis

Leukemia Diagnosis process carried out by: History, Physical Examination and Investigations.

History:

  • Pale,
  • Fever for no apparent reason,
  • Bleeding skin,
  • Bone pain,
  • Sluggish,
  • Weight loss.

Physical examination :

  • Pale,
  • Epistaxis / Petechiae / Ecchymosis,
  • Enlarged lymph nodes,
  • Hepatomegaly,
  • Splenomegaly.

 

Supporting investigation :

  • At PHC: Blood routine and count (note the levels of hemoglobin and low platelets, low levels of leukocytes or increase> 100,000 / ml, presence or absence of blast cells.
  • RS Type C and B: Blood routine and count, Photos AP and Lateral thoracic, bone marrow aspiration, lumbar puncture, bone marrow Cytochemical.
  • In the RS Type A: Blood routine and Calculate types, Photos AP and Lateral thoracic, bone marrow aspiration, lumbar puncture, bone marrow Cytochemical, Imunofenotiping, Cytogenetics.

 

Management of leukemia include: Chemotherapy and Supportive treatment.

 

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