Mavis Lindgren a woman who on 60 years age about, began escaped because she had health problem and finally constituted a woman record holder on 11th marathon competition of Portland. And finally accordance with routine she participated on marathon competition in USA and England. White clarifies that walking accordance with regularly more benefit than all of medicine which is given by doctor. Research about reparation of lifestyle include of reduce of the calories intake and increase of physical activity be compared with giving metformin medicine for prevention of Diabetes Mellitus on overweight population during plus minus two years showed that decreasing of Diabetes Mellitus case on reparation of lifestyle and metformin each amount of 58% and 31 % be compared with control. This showed that physical activity or sport as part of lifestyle has big function as medicine to prevent diseases like Diabetes Mellitus, and so other of degenerative diseases.
According to Darwiniah (evolutionary) medicine theory, rising of physical activity pushed the rising of genes activity which expressive the health promoting protein (HPP) and blocked the genes activity which expressive the disease promoting protein (DPP). For examples: Health promoting protein is AMPK (adenosine monophosphat activated protein kinase) and eNOS. And Disease promoting protein is nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) which constitutes becomes as source of degenerative diseases. But not all of sport intensity level or physical activity has characteristic as medicine. Only moderately of sport or physical activity constitute as the best medicine for disease because it doesn’t rise super oxide or reactive oxygen species, oxidative most fat, raised antioxidant enzyme like super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione and catalase, and others.
Physical activity toward Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus disease is signed by complex metabolic disorder as the consequence of unhealthy lifestyle i.e. less of activity and ate more food as consequence of raising the community prosperity. As the complication of Diabetes Mellitus could happened cardiovascular disease, stroke, gangrene and others. Of these complications need be developed prevention efforts through raising the activity (sport) and reducing the calorie intake. While do the physical activity or sport occur raising removal of glucose skeletal muscle cells amount 7 – 20 times folding than while rest condition, be depended of physical activity or sport intensity. On early of moderate physical activity, energy source come from glucose oxidation which come from glycogen lyses of muscle glycogen and then from oxidation of muscle fat and glucose which be taken from blood. If moderate sport or moderate physical activity being continuously, so then the more much glucose and fat from blood are oxidized as energy source, where proportion fat more big with increasingly the time. Energy source which come from muscle fat in shape triglyceride and diacylglycerol (DAG). Increasing of DAG in skeletal muscle constitute the etiology of decreasing insulin activity until develop become Diabetes Mellitus. Increasing the oxidation of fat in skeletal muscle cause reducing of fat of skeletal muscle included of reducing DAG value until can repair activity of insulin. Beside that increasing the physical activity cause increasing the solve of ATP become AMP. AMP activate the AMPK and induce the removal of glucose which isn’t depended of insulin or need not insulin helping. Physical activity so increase NO (nitric oxide) production which participates in increase the removal of glucose by muscle without insulin helping. So that moderate sport or moderate physical activity constitutes the medicine for Diabetes Mellitus sufferers.
Physical activity toward Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease like as coronary heart disease, stroke and hypertension constitute the etiology of death number one in Indonesia although in the world. This disease be caused by genetic factor and west lifestyle i.e. less of physical activity and ate more food. By that cause WHO (2003) declared that therapy of cardiovascular disease which the best were with lifestyle modification i.e. increase the activity, reduce the calorie intake, reduce smoking and hard drinks. Reducing the calorie intake or decrease the body weight, increase protein give protect effect toward heart disease that be known with adiponektin. Reducing of body weight will more effective, if is followed by raising the moderate physical activity. The moderate physical activity increase enzyme activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO production in endothelial cell and by parakrin cause relaxation the smooth muscle of blood vessel, and cause reducing the blood pressure on hypertension. NO so has effect to increase enzyme production of super oxide dismutase and maybe so katalase enzyme until increase capacity of antioxidant in body. Other functions of NO prevent atherosclerosis through prevention of inflammation process on blood vessel and prevent LDL-Cholesterol oxidation which also participates in atherosclerosis development.
Physical activity toward Cancer
Effect of moderate sport or moderate physical activity on prevalence of cancer because sport or physical activity reduce oxidative stress and increase antioxidant defense system, reduce free sex hormone (testosterone, estrogen, dihydrotestosterone), reduce sex hormone that be bundled globulin (SHBG) until reduce interaction target tissue, reduce insulin production and IGF-1 (prostate cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer).
Physical activity toward Osteoporosis
Walking very benefit for muscle strength and back bone be followed with stretching some kind of muscles like as muscular of pectorals major and minor (chest muscle), muscular of latisimus dorsa (back muscles), deltoid muscles and trapezius (shoulder muscles), muscular lumbalis (lumbar muscles), abdomen muscles, buttocks muscles, quadriceps muscle, hamstring muscles, biceps and triceps muscles, and calf muscles. Stretching is enforced during 15 – 30 seconds for each kinds of stretching.