Sport is a series of regular movement and be planned, which be enforced by aware with goal to increase functional ability of cell, organ and body system. And Health is the condition includes physic, mental and social which by whole is present in well condition and not only free from sick, deformity and weakness, along with productivity in accordance with social and economic (WHO).
Sport has prevention effect toward health disorder accordance with primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary prevention means that sport regularly on people who healthy can prevent appearing of certain disease. Secondary prevention means that physical exercise regularly and with precise dosage can recover certain disease. Tertiary prevention means that physical exercise regularly and with precise dosage can prevent or decelerate the occurring of disease complication.
Physical activity that descends will increase prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus disease really. Epidemiology study proof that the participant of Harvard Nurse Health who do physical activity less than 150 minutes per week indicate the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and death by coronary hearth diabetic disease higher each 85% and 92% than who do physical activity more than 150 minutes per week. On year 1990 the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus higher six time multiplies on Indian Pima Arizona families who adopt west lifestyle be compared with Indian Pima Mexico families with physical activity equivalent with 500 – 600 kilo calorie higher and consume food lower fat and higher fibrous. These indicate that changing of prevalence of disease support actor of environment genotype interaction.
The decreasing of physical activity on population during 200 years hold on actor on adapt some gene with together and with characteristic very complex. This interaction according to Darwiniah concept (evolutionary) medicine that less of physical activities (inactivity) cause the failing to defend expression of gene like on ending palaeotik level until occur barrier toward genes which expressive “health” promoting protein and activate “disease” promoting protein until increase the prevalence of disease on population with less physical activity.
Of that because, sport or physical activity if be enforced regularly can reduce risk of occurring of some diseases like as heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, some cancers, hypertension, depression, anxiety, obesity, and osteoporosis. Beside that physical activity regularly very important to help to support mental stability, steadying of mental, standing alone for old ages, increase the power of muscle and body balancing, increase the stamina, vitality and metabolism of body.
Physical fitness level is related to incident and death risk of certain diseases. Increasingly high the level of physical fitness of population increasingly low the risk of incident and death of certain diseases. Risk of heart attack descend on population who do foot walk five hours per week, can reduce the heart attack 59% be compared for population who relaxed and death incident by many kinds of diseases 4,5 times multiplies on population who relaxed be compared with good physical fitness level. Populations with high physical fitness level have C – reactive protein values (a sign of chronic degenerative disease) which lower 2, 3 and 3, 3 times each on woman and man, risk of stroke lower three times than who has not physical fitness, and reduce death risk by hypertension and hypercholesterolemia diseases.
Raising the activity can reduce the incident of Acute Respiratory Tract Infection 34% and 20% each on man and woman, reduce the incident of fracture an amount of a third be compared with who has not physical fitness. Such so raising physical activity can reduce the incident risk of Diabetes Mellitus and Cancer. Increasing long of physical fitness or sport be enforced then increasingly small the risk to hit of Diabetes Mellitus and Cancer. Raising the physical activity so can reduce the risk of Mamma Cancer, Colon Cancer, and Pancreas Cancer each an amount of 18 – 21%, 40 – 67% and 54% be defended of long and intensity of physical activity that be done. Rising of physical activity so can rehabilitate frustration feeling, anxiety and depression. Specifically for depression who be cured by medicine and physical exercise regularly give repair effect same with therapy after 16 weeks, with note physical activity repair mental ability better in matter of concentration and planning. Raising physical activity prevent lowering of mental. The best method to prevent lowering of mental is by walking. Raising physical activity will increase fat burn and accelerate lowering of body weight. The coverage of body weight lowering is depended of duration of physical activity that is done and lowering of intake energy from foods. The success in lowering of body weight gives stronger effects toward the prevention of disease particularly of chronic degenerative disease (Suwetra, on Seminar Kesehatan Olahraga, June, 2008).