Women group very afraid toward the Toxoplasmosis disease because its can cause infertility or always abortion if they are pregnancy. So its can cause the baby who be born become in physical defect (deformity) condition. Toxoplasmosis disease be transfered by animal from cat family like as: forest cat, cared for cat and or tiger. Spreading to human can pass through four methods i.e. : by non expressly swallow up the foods or drinks that have been contaminated by Txoplasma parasite; Consume the food from meat that contains Toxoplama parasite and it is not cooked completely; pass through placenta from mother who pregnant to baby in uterus; and can spread pass through blood transfusion.
Toxoplasmosis or usually be named “toxo” is the disease that be caused by parasite : Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite the first time be found in spleen and liver Ctenodoctyles gondii, a type of rodent animal from Sahara, North Africa at year 1908. And in human be found in Cekoslowakia at year 1923.
Cat constitute the definitive host (excellent life place) of Toxoplasma parasite. On the fact this parasite so can be found on several type of animal, however only in cat intestine the parasite can develop accordance with sexual or asexual by self cracked. Infection will occur if infective shape of this parasite has been swallowed by appropriate host, i.e. : mammalian, avian, non except of human. In the body of this parasite host the parasite only can develop by asexual. Cat can suffer Toxoplasma after swallow minimally one of three shapes of infective parasite i.e. : cystic, oocystic, or takizoit. Intraintestinal cycles will occur if cystic in the body of avian or rat ( as intermediate host ) be swallowed by cat which constitute it predator. Parasite next will multiply itself on intestine wall and result out of oocystic which be excreted pass through feces of cat at time 2 – 3 weeks. On 5 days periods, oocystic has changed become infectious shape toward human and many type of other animal.
This infectious shape has enough high endurance toward environment condition, along with it can hold out on moist earth and sand in several month periods. During intra intestinal cycle is continuing, amount of Toxoplasma parasite make penetration on intestinal wall and self multiply become takizoit shape. Not long next this shape will exit from intestine and spread to other part of body to begin extra intestinal (outside of intestinal) . In finally immune system of cat will barricade the development of this infectious shape, and can cause accumulation of bradizoit shape that has dormant (sleep) characteristic in brain tissue and muscle tissue. Most cystic shape will permanent in body host during it’s life in dormant (sleep) condition. By slowly this shape will change become cystic shape and cause chronic infection in intermediate host. This extra intestinal cycle (outside of intestine) doesn’t only occur in cat body, but so can occur in the body of intermediate host, be included of human.
Although the incident of Toxoplasmosis has not experience change that enough significant yet at last several years, caution and attention toward this disease have drastic increasing. Be estimated around 30 – 50% of world population have been infected by Toxoplasma and more than 3000 Toxoplasma infection occur on pregnancy in USA, a big part without symptom. The research that be enforced by Gandhahusada year 1995 showed that prevalence rate of Toxoplasmosis in human revolve between 2 – 63%, in cat between 35 – 73%, in dog 75%, in goat between 11 – 61%, in pig between 11 – 36%, and less than 10% in cow/water buffalo.
Most of infection in adult human occur without symptom, or only show mild symptom like are increasing body temperature and enlargement of spleen gland. By base of impact that can be appeared this infection, congenital infection constitute the matter that need be concerned. Around about 45% spreading of Toxoplasma occur pass through congenital infection. From this amount, 60% of its constitute sub clinical infection, 9% with consequence of fetal death and 30% make appearing the enough severe impact (hydrocephalus, retinochoroiditis, and mental retardation).
Impact of infection very seldom be shown if mother suffer infection at last three semester her pregnancy, but more bad risk occur on infection at the first of three semester pregnancy infection, i.e. fetal death and baby malformation. More clear of symptom be shown after bearing, so can appear at some weeks, some months, moreover some years after bearing ( some clinical symptom so can show at puberty period as consequence of congenital infection ). Abnormality of nerve system ( mental retardation ) and vision ( blindness ), hydrocephalus, hearing disorder, fever, jaundice, with many kind of its complication, constitute as clinical manifestation that usually be suffered by patient of Toxoplasmosis. Symptom and other signs that maybe occur are macro cephalic or micro cephalic, skin eruption, bruised, and under skin bleeding, anemia, along with liver and spleen enlargement.
The symptom that appear of this infection i.e. :
- On many peoples appear without symptom of this disease.
- Fever, sore throat, exhausted, enlargement of lymphatic gland on neck and armpit area.
- On some cases can cause eyesight become blurred or loss of eyesight.
- Woman who in pregnancy time, or human who suffer a disease with low immunity system, like AIDS or cancer has high risk be attacked by this infection.
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