Free Radicals

Free radicals are molecules or atoms which contain single electron outside its orbit. Be found many kind free radicals those source from pollution, cigarette smokes, ultraviolet ray, greasy food, and others continuously 24 hours everyday go into body to cause oxidation process and disturb the human cells structure (stress oxidative).

If these problems go on severe and long standing will cause all kind health disorders like as cardiovascular disease, early aging process, cancer, and other kinds.

The kinds of free radicals as bellows:
Reactive oxygen species (ROS):

  • Superoxid radical
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Hydroxyl radical
  • Hydroperoxil radical

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS):

  • NO radicals
  • Nitrosomium cation (NO+)
  • Nitroxil anion (NO-)
  • Peroxynitritte (ONOO-)

One of all methods to against of free radicals is giving the oral antioxidant, but now many kinds of antioxidant be known, precisely be able to product new free radical (pro oxidant) if be used in multitude and long times.


Chemically definition of Antioxidant is the compounds as electron giver (electron donor), and biologically definition of Antioxidant is compound which can neutralize negative impact of oxidant for bodies, this compound prevent occur of stress oxidative.

Be found two big groups of antioxidant: Natural and Synthetic,

Natural antioxidants:

  • Enzyme (SOD/superoxid dysmutase, catalase, gluthation peroxides)
  • Transferrin
  • Lactofferin
  • Seruloplasmin
  • Albumin
  • Vitamin (vitamin C, vitamin E, tocoferol, beta carotene)
  • Ubiquinol 10
  • Flavonoid
  • Estrogen

Synthetic antioxidants:

  • SOD, catalase
  • Desperoxamin
  • Probucol
  • Salicylic, NSAID
  • Lasaroid
  • Captopril, beta-blocker, CCB, cinnarizine, amiodarone, methyl prednisolone
  • Xanthine oxides


It is natural carotene with unusually intensive antioxidant force. Astaxanthin can be found on micro alga all of world, begin from tropical lake to snow field of Antarctic. Astaxanthin is some substances which giving young red and red color on fresh meat salmon; prawn and lobster.

Astaxanthin is one of all antioxidants that strongest ever be found. Researcher found that astaxanthin has power:

  • Five hundred fifty multiplies stronger than vitamin E and 40 multiply stronger than beta carotene to take bundle the singlet oxygen.
  • One thousand multiplies stronger than vitamin E to peroxide the lipid.

Astaxanthin is one of all samples of evolution. Normally, micro algae that free swimming in the water reservoir is green color, but whiles the water reservoir dried and those algae are contacted by sunray; they begin to product astaxanthin with bright red colors in big amounts. Why? Because Astaxanthin as strong antioxidant which protecting algae from ultraviolet ray makes them life endurance – moreover although in most difficult conditions. Of because the function of astaxanthin is protecting cell nucleus toward free radicals that be caused by radiation ultraviolet ray this can damage DNA and peroxides energy sources.

During by the thousands years, Astaxanthin became part of human food. During the last twenty years, many kind of research and clinical test on human proofed antioxidant force and importance effect of Astaxanthin for health.

Sources of Astaxanthin



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